How many times have you racked your head wondering; why is this not getting better? How come they’re still in pain? How do we have all of this evidence and knowledge at our disposal, yet individuals do not respond as anticipated? The science says, for injury ‘Z’ treat with ‘X’ and rehabilitate with ‘Y’, yet when we apply those tools they don’t work? Why are they not getting better? What are you doing wrong? What are they doing wrong? Continue reading
Have you heard the old adage “if you don’t use it, you lose it”? Does this really happen? If so, to what degree does one “lose it”? I was riding dirt bikes since the age of three, began racing motocross at age six and ‘retired’ –moved from home and went to graduate school – around the age of 21. After 18 years of riding and racing, I know I can still swing my leg over a seat and take off and ride much better than most. But, I could not go as fast as I once could. I would not have the technique nor would I have the strength power or endurance to ride for long. What about my neural impulse and reaction – that would be nonexistent, wouldn’t it? Countless studies have demonstrated the positive correlation between practice and reaction. I haven’t practiced and with my luck, I’d hit a rock and run in to a tree. Continue reading
Several physiological and anatomical changes occur within the human body as individual’s age. One of the most prevalent changes occurs in the musculoskeletal system. Bone mass declines with age similar to muscle mass. Bone mass peaks around 30 years of age and then gradually declines. The cause of bone loss is multifactorial, including inactivity, changes in hormone levels, and improper nutrition. In regards to physical activity, the age-associated decline in muscular strength parallels the loss of bone mass (1). Research shows a significant risk factor for osteoporosis is physical inactivity.
Osteoporosis is a chronic disease characterized by a thinning and weakening of bones (2). Osteoporosis is determined as having a bone mineral density more than 2.5 standard deviations below the young adult mean value (3). Once bone mineral density reaches such a low-level, any imposed stress or force may lead to a fracture.
The most common fracture sites for people with osteoporosis include the wrist, thoracic spine, and proximal femur. This is due to a greater proportion of trabecular bone, which is more fragile when calcium is lost. Here are some interesting statistics in regards to osteoporosis:
- Approximately 10 million Americans over the age of 50 have osteoporosis.
- Almost 35 million Americans over the age of 50 have osteopenia, which is a bone density lower than normal and can lead to osteoporosis.
- 40% of Caucasian women will fracture a wrist, spine, or hip in their lifetime.
- Almost 20% of hip fractures lead to permanent disability.
- By 2020, half of all Americans over the age of 50 will be at risk for fracture due to weak bones (4).
As a living tissue, bone is constantly in a state of flux. Specialized bone cells called osteoblasts mediate the addition of calcium by adding to the bone matrix, and other cells called osteoclasts mediate the removal of calcium from the bone matrix. As we age, bone construction slows and bone degeneration accelerates, leading to osteoporosis. There are several risk factors for osteoporosis which include; history of fractures due to insignificant trauma, family history of osteoporosis, postmenopausal females, men over the age of 70, history of smoking at least one pack of cigarettes per day, and low body mass.
Unlike skeletal muscle, structural changes to bone tissue lead to very few functional decrements. That said health and fitness professionals must keep bone loss in mind especially when working with older adults who have Osteoporosis. To mitigate the loss of bone with age, older adults should engage in strategies that will have a protective effect on bone mass. The force of gravity imposes stress on bones. Gravity gives weight to an object due to the acceleration of that object toward the center of the earth. The force the skeleton is exposed to when absorbing ground reaction forces causes the skeleton to be loaded and will increase bone integrity and strength. Lifting weights will impose a stress to bone due to the articulation of the muscle, fascia, and bone.
According to research weight-bearing exercise with significant loading of bone helps to preserve bone mass in older adults (5). High-intensity resistance training with heavy loads relative to maximal strength also shows an increase in bone mineral density in older adults, while moderate intensity resistance training shows a smaller effect (6).
- Burr DB. Muscle strength, bone mass, and age-related bone loss. J Bone Miner Res. 1997;12(10):1547-1551.
- Liu H, Paige NM, Goldzweig CL, et al. Screening for osteroporosis in men: a systematic review for an American College of Physicians guideline. Ann Intern Med. 2008;148(9):685- 701.
- Kanis J, Melton LJ, Christiansen C. et al. The diagnosis of osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res. 1994; 9: 1137-1141.
- Center for Science in the Public Interest. Nutrition Action Health Newsletter. 2005;32(3)., Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008.
- Kelley GA, Kelley KS, Tran ZV. Exercise and BMD in men: a meta-analysis. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2001; 80: 65-77.
- Cussler EC, Lohman TG, Going SB, et al. Weight lifted in strength training predicts bone change in postmenopausal women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003; 35(1): 10-17.
Workout programs are designed to be systematic and progressive. Doing the same program over and over prevents training adaptations and isn’t very fun. Doing core stability everyday can become boring. Performing high intensity, metabolically dense training everyday can cause more harm than good. You need a good balance, in the word of training this balance is called undulating periodization. For example, One day power, next day core, next day strength, next day cardio. These varied forms of training create balance.
We need balance in life too. Sometimes, we must be reserved, calm, and placid. Other circumstances may call for periods of anger, fight, and brutal force. Music (beat & lyrics) is designed to match any mood; sad – Billie Holliday’s “Gloomy Sunday”, happy – Violent Femmes’ “American Music”, Angry – Pantera’s – “Fucking Hostile”. No matter what, there is a song to match your mood.
I listen to music all the time, especially while working out. So, I decided to create MyTunes; my top songs for each level of training intensity. Much like a workout – progressive from slow to fast, soft to hard. What are your favorites?
Josh Stone’s MyTunes Playlist
Core Stability: Relaxed, rhythmical
10 – Kashmir – Led Zepplin
9 – Gravity – John Mayer
8 – Fly Over States – Jason Aldean
7 – Unthought Known – Pearl Jam
6 – Shattered – O.A.R.
5 – Simple Man – Shinedown
4 – Viva La Vida – Coldplay
3 – Falling Slowly – Glen Hanspard
2 – Imagine – Chris Cornell
1 – Somewhere Over the Rainbow – Israel Kamakawiwo’ole
Cardiorespiratory Endurance: A bit upbeat, steady rhythm
10 – Get Rhythm – Johnny Cash
9 – Free Fallin’ – Tom Petty and the Heart Breakers
8 – Crossroads – Cream
7 – Whistle – Flo Rida
6 – We are Young – Fun.
5 – Home – Phillip Phillips
4 – Flake – Jack Johnson
3 – Me and Bobby McGee – Janis Joplin
2 – Two Step -Dave Matthews Band
1 – Something Bout a Truck – Kip Moore
Strength Training: Heavy and mildly intense
10 – Love-Hate-Sex-Pain – Godsmack
9 – America – Deuce
8 – Lounge Act – Nirvana
7 – Black Betty – Spiderbait
6 – Bro Hymn – Pennywise
5 – State of Massachusetts – Dropkick Murhpys
4 – Give it All – Rise Against
3 – Break Ya Neck – Busta Rhymes
2 – Face to the Floor – Chevelle
1 – Radar Love – Golden Earring
Power: Tear your head-off intense
10 – Judas – Revellie
9 – Screamin Out – The Unseen
8 – Aenima – Tool
7 – Blackened – Metallica
6 – Know Your Enemy – Rage Against the Machine
5 – Joy Ride – Snot
4 – American Capitalist – Five Finger Death Punch
3 – H*A*M – Jay-Z / Kayne West
2 – Ball Tongue – Korn
1 – Fucking Hostile – Pantera